The idea for writing a quantity surveyor's pocket book came to me while read- ing The Dangerous Book for Boys by Hal Iggulden. For those who are unfamiliar. This second edition of the Quantity Surveyor's Pocket Book is fully updated in line with NRM1, NRM2 and JCT(11), and remains a must-have guide for students. quantity surveyors pocket book. IdentifierQuantitySurveyorsPocketBook. Identifier -arkark://t9n34v31w. OcrABBYY FineReader
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in a high school English class, for example, could work with the book over If you come across such a word Pocket Book of Integrals and Mathematical. The third edition of the Quantity Surveyor's Pocket Book has been updated in line with NRM1, NRM2 and NRM3, and remains a must-have guide for students. The Quantity Surveyor's Pocket Book outlines all the practical skills, contractual and management techniques needed by a student studying.
Sometimes referred to as detailed planning permission when a fully detailed application is made. Permission when granted is valid for six years. If planning permission is refused then there is an appeals process, although appeal can only be made on certain matters, listed below.
Allowable reasons for appeal are: Properties in conservation areas Non-compliance with local development plan Property is subject to a covenant Planning permission already exists Infringements of rights of way.
Prior to a proposed development, it is thoroughly recommended that the Structure Plans are read and understood. Buildings erected without planning permission will have a demolition order served on them and the structure will be taken down and destroyed. Building Regulations Even when planning permission is not necessary, most building work is subject to the requirements of the Building Regulations.
Building Regulations ensure that new and alterations work are carried out to an agreed standard that protects the health and safety of people in and around the building. Builders and developers are required by law to obtain building control approval, which is an independent check that the Building Regulations have been complied with.
There are two types of building control providers: The documents which set out the regulations are: Each Approved Document contains the Building Regulations relevant subject areas. This is then followed by practical and technical guidance that include examples detailing the regulations. The current set of approved documents is in 13 parts and include details of areas such as: Structural, Fire Safety, Electrical Safety, etc.
Contravention of the Building Regulation is punishable with a fine or even a custodial sentence plus, of course, the destruction and rebuilding of the works which does not comply with the regulations. There are two approaches to complying with Building Regulations: The work is also inspected as work proceeds. Once approval is given and a building notice is approved, it is valid for three years. Health and safety The construction industry is one of the most dangerous in the UK.
In the last 25 years, over people have died from injuries they received as a result of construction work. Many more have been injured or made ill. Efficient site organisation is of vital importance from two aspects: It is clear from the above figures that for a number of reasons the UK construction sector has a poor record in health and safety matters. In an attempt to improve the industries attitude to health and safety the Construction Design and Management Regulations were introduced in in order to comply with EU legislation.
The CDM Regulations made the duties on clients, and designers were made explicit by identifying the need to reduce risk by better coordination, management and cooperation. Without doubt, the introduction of the CDM.
Regulations led to major changes in how the industry managed health and safety. Although several years after their introduction, there were concerns from industry and the Health and Safety Executive HSE that the regulations were not delivering the improvements in health and safety that were expected.
The principal reasons were said to be: During and extensive consultations were carried out between the HSE and industry. As a result, in April the CDM Regulations came into force, the characteristics which were to: The CDM structure is as follows: Notifiable construction work under CDM are construction projects with a non-domestic client and involve: This excludes domestic clients from the definition, but not necessarily domestic premises. A domestic client is someone who lives, or will live, in the premises where the work is carried out.
However, the CDM client duties will still apply to domestic premises if the client is a: Local authority Landlord Housing association Charity Collective of leaseholders Or any other trade, business or undertaking whether for profit or not.
To some the exclusion of domestic clients was a missed opportunity given the pattern of workload in the UK. Duties on clients can be summarised as follows: For notifiable projects, where no CDM coordinator or principal contractor is appointed then the client will be deemed to be the CDM coordinator and subject to their duties. Who can be a CDM coordinator? If this book had been written ten years ago, then sustainability would not have been an issue; seven years ago sustainability issues were starting to be discussed, but were considered only to be of interest to tree-hugging cranks.
Welcome to the second decade of the twentyfirst century where sustainability and the need to be badged a green construction organisation is seen to be vital to maintain market share. As illustrated in Figure 1. This made it mandatory for EPCs and Display Energy Certificates DEC to be available for constructed, marketed or rented buildings including non-dwellings by 4 January , at the latest.
The EU directive was implemented in the UK by means of:. Even before the full implementation of the EPBD, plans were at an advanced stage to revise the legislation with, amongst other things, a public consultation that closed in July It is expected that by the new directive, currently referred to as EPBD2, will include: EcoHomes points Now superseded by the Code for Sustainable Homes, except in Scotland, some development projects still have a requirement for this assessment.
EcoHomes assesses the green performance of houses over a number of criteria by reducing: CO2 emissions from transport and operational energy Main water consumption The impact of materials used Pollutants harmful to the atmosphere and by: BREEAM measures the environmental performance of buildings by awarding credits for achieving levels of performance.
What is sustainability? There are many definitions, as with any new buzz term, people queue up to add their definition in order to gain their five minutes of fame! In reality, it would appear to mean different things to different people in different parts of the world, depending on their circumstances. Consequently, there may never be a consensus view on its exact meaning. Although high on the face of it, the true cost of waste is generally around 20 times that of the costs due to the following: The so-called waste hierarchy has been described as follows: The process of getting the minimum whole life cost and environmental impact is complex, as illustrated in Figure 1.
Each design option will have associated impacts, costs and trade-offs, e. The solution to a complex problem will be iterative. Generally, attention to the following issues will increase the design costs, but not the costs of the building itself and will reduce whole life costs: During procurement supply chains should be aware that components should be chosen selectively to minimise: Embodied energy; energy of production and transport Atmospheric emissions from boilers, etc.
Disposal to landfill of non-biodegradable waste Air quality contaminants, e. Is a new building really the answer to the clients needs, or is there another strategy that could deliver a more appropriate solution and add value?
Sustainability in design requires a broad and long term view of the environmental, economic and social impacts of particular decisions. Design out waste both from the process and the life span. As well as the obvious definition waste can also include: Minimise energy in construction and in use Fully investigate the whole life cost and life cycle cost implication of the materials and systems that are being procured. Draw up environment profiles of components. Do not Pollute Understand the environmental impacts and have policies to manage them positively.
Construction can have a direct and obvious impact on the environment. Sources of pollution can include: Set targets Use benchmarking and similar techniques discussed in chapter six to monitor continuous improvement. Site waste management plans Clearly, given the above statistics, the construction industry can address sustainability by reducing waste. From 6 April Site Waste. The responsibility for the production of the site waste management plan is jointly shared between the client and the contractor and should contain the following details: Without doubt, sustainable considerations will continue to be high on the list of construction industry issues for the foreseeable future.
The terms commonly associated with cost advice are: An example of the BCIS standard list of elements can be found at: Ironmongery and glazing. Shop fronts. Lintels, sills, cavity damp-proof courses and work to reveals of openings.
Preparation of feasibility studies and assessment of options to enable the client to decide whether to proceed. B Design brief Development of initial statement of requirements into the design brief or on behalf of the client confirming key requirements and constraints. Identification of procurement method, procedures, organisational structure and range of consultants and others to be engaged for the project.
C Concept Implementation of design brief and preparation of additional data. Preparation of concept design including outline proposals for structural and building services systems, outline specification and preliminary cost plan. Review of procurement process. D Design development Development of concept design including structural and building services systems, updated outline specifications and cost plan.
Completion of project brief. E Technical design Preparation of technical design s and specifications, sufficient to coordinate components and elements of the project. F Production information Preparation of detailed information for construction. G Tender documentation Preparation of tender documentation.
H Tender action Identification and evaluation of potential contractors and specialists. Obtaining and appraising tenders. J Mobilisation Letting the building contract, appointing the contractor.
Issuing information to the contractor. Arranging handover of site. K Construction to practical completion Administration of the building contract to practical completion. Provision to the contractor of further information. Review of information. L Post practical completion Administration of the building contract and making final inspections. Assisting building user during initial occupation period.
Review of project performance in use. External doors Doors, fanlights and sidelights. Frames, linings and trims. Lintels, thresholds, cavity damp-proof courses and work to reveals of openings. Internal walls and partitions Internal walls, partitions and insulation. Chimneys forming part of internal walls up to plate level. Screens, borrowed lights and glazing. Moveable space-dividing partitions. Internal doors Doors, fanlights and sidelights. Sliding and folding doors.
Lintels, thresholds and work to reveals of openings. Once a project commences on site there is a need to control cost targets set in the pre-contract phase to ensure that costs do not spiral out of control. As illustrated in Figure 2. For example, an analysis of several cost analyses would show a range of values for two elements as follows: External walls: It is also good practice once the preliminary estimate is complete to check that the.
It requires a good deal of skill and experience and is the process of adding in or deducting from the cost analysis figure to arrive at a budget for a new project. Therefore in preparing a budget for a new project assume, a cost analysis has been chosen as the basis for the estimate. However, the cost analysis will contain items that are not required for the new project and these must be deducted.
For example, in the new project the client wishes to exclude the installation of air conditioning, included in the cost analysis project, from the estimate and this will have to be deducted from the budget; but on the other hand the client wishes to include CCTV throughout and the cost of providing this must be calculated and added in.
It is important, as described later, to adjust costs to take account of differences in price levels. The process continues until all identified differences have been accounted for. Other credible approaches to approximate estimating that are available to the quantity surveyor are:. Unit method The unit method is a single price rate method based upon the cost per functional unit of the building, a functional unit being, for example, a hotel bedroom.
This method is often regarded as a way of making a comparison between buildings in order to satisfy the design team that the costs are reasonable in relation to other buildings of a similar nature. It is not possible to adjust the single rate price and therefore is very much a ball park approach.
Suitable for clients who specialise in one type of project; for example, hotel or supermarket chains, where it can be surprisingly accurate.
Other examples where unit costs may apply are: Superficial method The superficial method is a single price rate method based on the cost per square metre of the building. The use of this method should be restricted to the early stages of the design sequence and is probably the most frequently used method of approximate estimating. Its major advantage is that most published cost data is expressed in this form.
The method is quick and simple to use though, as in the case of the unit method, it is imperative to use data from similarly designed projects. Another advantage of the superficial method is that the unit of measurement is meaningful to both the client and the design team.
Although the area for this method is relatively easy to calculate, it does require skill in assessing the price rate. The rules for calculating the area are: No deduction is made for internal walls, lift shafts, stairwells, etc. Figures for specialist works may be available from sub-contractors and specialist contractors. For example: Gross floor area for office block in Figure 2. Approximate quantities Regarded as the most reliable and accurate method of estimating, provided that there is sufficient information to work on.
Depending on the experience of the surveyor, measurement can be carried out fairly quickly using composite rates to save time. The rules of measurement are simple, although it must be said, they are not standardised and tend to vary slightly from one surveyor to another.
An example for a composite is shown below for substructure: Excavate trench width exceeding 0. Normally, if measured in accordance with SMM7, these items would be measured separately as described in Chapter 3.
However, when using approximate quantities a composite rate that includes a mix of units of measurement and applied to a linear metre of trench, is calculated. Elemental cost planning A cost plan is an estimate presented in a standard elemental format. The industry norm is the BCIS list of elements referred to earlier. The estimate is based on a cost analysis of a previous project and adjusted to suit the new project.
The characteristics of elemental cost planning are as follows: Initial costs are allocated over the BCIS groups of element: Given the choice, the more accurate cost information is the element unit rate as it reflects the actual cost of providing a specific element, whereas the cost per m2 of floor area can be corrupted by other factors such as building plan shape, etc.
Sources of cost information Not all cost information has the same reputation for accuracy and reliability and care should be exercised when choosing cost data for a new estimate. The Building Cost Information Service has, since its inception in , published a wealth of cost data on a wide variety of building types. The advantages of the BCIS are that the service is available, for a subscription fee, online and is published in standard cost analysis format.
The BCIS is also a useful source of cost data for calculating cost forecasts, etc. Price books are published annually and contain a range of prices for standard bills of quantities items. Because they are in book form, the information tends to be several months old. A useful source of information as the cost information tends to be current. As with other forms of cost data, there is a need to adjust for differences in location, etc.
Depending on the size of an organisation, perhaps the most reliable source of cost information, partly due to the fact that it is easier to ensure good quality control on the data. Also data presented in this format will be easily understood and interpreted. A disadvantage is the time and cost taken to prepare and store the information. Cost planning is a continuing process that gradually becomes more detailed as the design process progresses, as illustrated in Table 2.
The design team has formulated a concept design and the object of the first estimate is to arrive at a cost limit that the client is happy with to which the design team can prepare their detailed design. Assuming that the client has approved the target cost, the elemental cost planning can begin. To prepare an elemental cost plan the following information should be assembled: Therefore, when preparing an elemental cost plan, the first task is to select an appropriate cost analysis as discussed above.
If using the BCIS, the selection can be facilitated by using their online service, where it is possible to enter the required parameters of the new project in the search facility. Several cost analyses will be selected and from these the most appropriate is chosen and used as the basis for the elemental cost plan. The selection is based on a comparison between the cost plan project and the available cost analyses over a range of parameters and should be done carefully.
The criteria for selection are follows: In addition, cost significant elements should be examined for similarity. Even after this process, the data in the cost analysis will need to be adjusted before being used for the cost plan. The front sheet of a cost analysis contains a wealth of information relating to the analysed project that can be used in the adjustment process.
The adjustments to cost analysis data can be categorised as follows: Price levels Differences in price levels between cost analysis and cost plan data are adjusted using the following: Measures of changes in items such as location, building costs or tender prices are performed using index numbers.
Index numbers are a means of expressing data relative to a base year.
For example, in the case of a building cost index, a selection of building materials is identified, recorded and given the index number Every 3 months the costs are recorded for exactly the same materials and any increase or decrease in cost is reflected in the index as follows: Any variation in the cost of either of these basics will influence the cost of the works. Cost indices are an attempt to measure price.
Indices reflect changes and all indices require the selection of a base period usually this is set at , any increases or decreases being reflected in the indices. Location indices Tender price levels vary according to the region of the country where the work is carried out. Generally speaking, London and the South East of England are the most expensive and the regional variations are reflected in a location index that is used to adjust prices.
The BCIS annually publishes a set of location indices that cover most parts of the UK and these can be used to adjust in cases where the cost analysis building and the cost plan building are in different locations.
Building cost indices The cost of any building is determined, primarily, by the cost of the labour and materials involved in its erection. Building cost indices measure changes in the cost of materials, labour and plant to the contractor.
They ignore any changes in profit levels, overheads, productivity, discounts, etc. Building cost indices track movements in the input costs of construction work in various sectors, incorporating national wage agreements and changes in material prices as measured by government index series.
They provide an underlying indication of price changes and differential movements in various work sectors, but do not reflect changes in market conditions affecting profit and overheads provisions, site wage rates, bonuses or material price discounts and premiums. In a world of global markets, building cost indices can be influenced by many factors including demands in immerging and developing markets such as China and India, for example, Davis Langdon Indices.
Used to adjust and allow for cost increases between the date of the preparation of the estimate and the tender date. Tender price indices Tender price indices are based on what the client has to pay for a building as it takes into account building costs.
These indices, therefore, reflect fluctuations in the tendering market. Tender price indices can be used to adjust for potential increases in cost between the date of the preparation of the cost plan and the actual date the project goes to tender. Other information The front cover of the cost analysis should also contain information relating to contract type, procurement strategy, market factors, etc.
All of these factors can affect price levels and should be taken into account when preparing a cost plan: There are a wide variety of contract forms available see Chapter 5 and within these contract forms there are a variety of alternatives available. When market conditions are buoyant and work is plentiful, contractors may choose to include high profit levels as compared to situations when work is in short supply.
Once again, this factor can have an influence of pricing levels and should be taken into account. Differences in quantity This adjustment takes account of differences in the elemental quantity of the cost plan and cost analysis projects.
Table 2. Differences in quality The final adjustment is an attempt to allow for differences in quality, say finishes and specification levels. Example — Element 2E — External walls A cost plan is being prepared for a new six-storey office project with glazed curtain walling.
A cost analysis of a previous similar building has been selected and the costs are adjusted as follows: Data Cost analysis Element unit rate: In order for the integrity of the system to be maintained, it is important that no major changes in the design are now made after Stage D.
At the Design Development Stage each element should have a cost target; the cost control process involves checking that the cost allocation is realistic, now more detailed information is available, using approximate quantities. Cost checking at the Technical Design Stage involves: During the construction phase the cost control process continues with the preparation of Financial Statements. These statements are produced by the quantity surveyor at either monthly or threemonthly intervals and predict the final cost of the project when completed.
They require the quantity surveyor to assess the financial effect of variations and other adjustments to the contract that have been issued, or are expected to be issued, and require a good deal of expertise to produce accurate figures and costs.
Adjust for: Design and cost The design of a building can have a major impact on costs. These design factors can be grouped as follows: Plan shape The enclosing ratio of a building is a useful rule of thumb to assess the efficiency of a plan shape. It is found by dividing the area of the enclosing envelope by the gross floor area; the smaller the result of the alternatives being compared, the comparatively more economic the design.
Figure 2. By applying the enclosing ratio to the above three alternatives the following results are obtained: It is clear that Plan A gives the best i. The amount of external envelope is important as it is one of the cost significant groups of elements, containing external walls and fenestration. It can also be seen that, the more the plan shape moves away from a square, the comparatively more expensive the design becomes.
In theory, the most economic design solution is a circular plan shape, a circle having the least amount of external envelope per m2 of gross floor area; however, in practice other costs associated with building with a circular footprint outweigh any cost savings. Height and number of storeys The main impact when storey height is increased is on the vertical elements, such as external and internal wall finishes.
There will also be an impact on services installations with pipe and cable runs increasing. The number of storeys in a building can affect costs in the following ways: Orientation and footprints Should accommodation by provided in one large or groups of smaller buildings? Given the choice, it is better to use one larger building as the cost significant elements are considerably greater when two smaller buildings are used.
Some plan shapes have become the industry norm for certain types of buildings. For example, Figure 2. Note, it should be remembered that factors such as the shape of the site or topography may override the other factors. Care should be. Sinking funds Sinking funds are used for investment in wasting assets, e. The sinking fund allowance, therefore, becomes a further cost to be taken into account during the evaluation process. Whether this approach is adopted will depend on a number of features including, corporate policy, interest rates, etc.
Sinking funds involve investing a sum of money at the end of each year to accumulate to the sum required to replace the asset. It should be noted that: This can be done as follows:.
Discounting appraisal techniques Discounting appraisal techniques are an attempt to evaluate the effect that time has over the worth of income and expenditure.
Much of the financial calculation and appraisal of items that form part of a feasibility study such as income, expenditure, etc. Discounting appraisal techniques are normally considered to be superior to conventional methods when doing this due to their implicit recognition of the time value of money. Net present value NPV In essence discounted cash flow involves: The net present value approach NPV Discounting allows the current prices of items, such as materials and components, to be adjusted to take account of the value of money of the life cycle of the product.
The choice of the discount rate is critical and can be problematic as it can alter the outcome of calculation substantially. There are two golden rules that apply: The discount rate can be considered almost as the rate of return required by the investor which includes costs, risks and lost opportunities. The mathematical expression used to calculate discounted present values are set out below: What is the presentday worth or value of such an investment?
It can be calculated as follows: Calculating the present value of the differences between streams of costs and benefits provides the NPV of an option and this is used as the basis of comparison as follows: The significance of the results in Table 2. That is to say, the benefits are greater than the costs and is clearly the better alternative.
A marginal or zero net present value is indicative of a do nothing option. Alternatively, for the example given in Table 2. This approach can include the provision of a sinking fund in the calculation in order that the costs of replacement are also taken into account. In using the annual equivalent approach, the following equation applies: The characteristics of IRR are: A technique known as iteration is used to calculate the IRR of the profit.
This involves selecting a trial discount rate and then calculating the NPV for that rate. The process is repeated for another rate until two rates are found which both have an NPV very close to and either side of zero, i. The higher rate of return from Option A means that the cash is received earlier with this option.
Both methods have their relative advantages and disadvantages and generally speaking IRRs are not a reliable alternative to NPV-based calculations for the measurement of the value of an investment.
In addition, IRR has been criticised for certain implicit assumptions. The following list of assumptions is made in both forms of analysis: In practice, particularly during periods of inflation, risk and uncertainty often need to be taken into account. This is difficult when using NPVs, as present values are in the nature of absolute measures.
However, the IRR is expressed as a rate of return so that it can easily be adjusted by a margin to allow for risk. Consequently, for its ease of understanding, its economy of presentation and its flexibility in allowing for risk, IRR is preferable. It should be noted that taxation law changes at regular intervals. The Inland Revenue seeks to classify individuals and companies who build and then dispose of property as follows. Investors Investors are individuals or companies who build a property and retain ownership for approximately five or so years before disposal.
Traders Traders are individuals or companies who build a property and dispose of it for profit on completion. The revenue has several rules of thumb to determine which of the above classifications a taxpayer belongs to; however, suffice to say that the tax position of investors is far more favourable than traders who are treated, for taxation purposes, as any trader who produces goods or products.
Feasibility reports Whether in the private or public sector, when a new construction project is proposed the first question early stage in the development process that needs to be addressed by clients and quantity surveyors alike is: This question, in turn, depends on many other factors and variables. Construction is a high risk process — there are so many external influences that can derail the best laid development plans, for example: In addition to the above, the property market is uniquely inelastic; this means that, following an increase in demand for a certain type of development, it can take up to two years for supply to come on stream.
The effect of this is a shortage of supply and a rise in prices as companies and individuals try to secure what limited stocks are available. When advising a client on the feasibility of a proposed new project, the quantity surveyor must take all of these factors into account as well as giving some indication of the construction costs — good local knowledge is an essential part of this process.
As we can see, there is a range of unknowns and variables which have to be taken into account when determining the feasibility of a project. The most realistic way to report information to a client is to include some sort of indication that the figures being reported or data used in the preparation of the report are likely not to be totally accurate.
Various techniques for reporting probabilities will be discussed later in this section. This method of valuation is only one of a set of five standard methods of valuation, the others being: Used extensively by general practice surveyors when determining whether the price being asked for a property such as an office block is realistic compared to the amount of income that is generated rent paid by the tenants.
The value of an investment property is in no way connected to the cost of the construction or other costs. Used to derive rental values from earnings from, for example, a hotel. It involves establishing the gross earnings for the property and deducting from this all expenses including profit , that are likely to be incurred by the tenant.
The residual figure is the amount available for rent. It should be noted that caution is required, as earnings, for a number of reasons, can be distorted. The most widely used form of valuation, it uses direct comparison with prices paid for similar properties to the one being valued. The following should be noted: Used for insurance purposes and for unusual or unique buildings that rarely comes onto the market. This has changed to some extent with quantity surveyors and other members of the design team winning work in their own right.
Architects can also act as contract administrators, although increasingly this role is being taken over by others. Unlike the rest of Europe most architects work within private practice, with a few working for contractors or developer.
The UK is home to some of the largest firms of commercial architects in the world. The work of architects influences every aspect of our built environment, from the design of energy efficient buildings to the integration of new buildings in sensitive contexts.
Architects work closely with other members of the construction industry including engineers, builders, surveyors, local authority planners and building control officers. Key to building surveying is an in-depth knowledge of building pathology, and building surveyors can frequently be found working on historic and conservation projects.
For smaller new build contracts, building surveyors can also take on the design role and contract administration. Structural engineer A structural engineer is involved in the design and supervision of the construction of all kinds of structures such as houses, theatres, sports stadia, hospitals, bridges, oil rigs, space satellites and office blocks.
To the chartered structural engineer, the considerations of strength, shape and function are paramount in their conception of the framework of a structure. Having chosen appropriate materials such as steel, brick, concrete or timber, The quantity surveyor and the construction industry 15 they then need to design the structure and make all the necessary checks and calculations to ensure that the foundations will be sound, that the floors and roof will not fall down, and that the construction as a whole will remain safe and serviceable for the length of its intended lifetime.
The specialist skills of a structural engineer will include: calculating loads and stresses; investigating the strength of foundations; and analysing the behaviour of beams and columns in steel, concrete or other materials. This procedure should ensure that the structure has the strength required to perform its function safely, economically and with a shape and appearance that is visually satisfying. Civil engineer Civil engineers are involved with the design, development and construction in a huge range of projects in the built and natural environment.
Their role is central to ensuring the safe, timely and well-resourced completion of infrastructure projects in many areas, including: highways construction, waste management, coastal development and geotechnical engineering.
Consulting civil engineers liaise with clients to plan, manage, design and supervise the construction of projects. They work in a number of different settings and, with experience, can run projects as project managers.
Within civil engineering, consulting engineers are the designers; contracting engineers turn their plans into reality. Consulting civil engineers provide a wide range of services to clients. During the early stages of a career, work will involve taking responsibility for minor projects; although the size of the projects may increase as experience is gained. Infrastructure is the thing that supports our daily life; roads and harbours, railways and airports, hospitals, sports stadiums and schools, access to drinking water and shelter from the weather.
Infrastructure adds to our quality of life, and because it works, we take it for granted. Only when parts of it fail, or are taken away, do we realise its value. In most countries, a civil engineer with have graduated from a post-secondary school with a degree in civil engineering, which requires a strong background in mathematics, economics and the physical sciences; this degree is typically a four-year degree, though many civil engineers continue on to obtain a masters, engineer, doctoral and post-doctoral degree.
Building services engineer Building services engineers are responsible for ensuring the costeffective and environmentally sound and sustainable design and maintenance of energy using elements in buildings. They have an important role in developing and maintaining buildings and their components, to make the most effective use of natural resources and protect public safety.
The professional institution for building services engineers is the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. There are a variety of grades of membership depending on qualifications and experience.
By the nineteenth century the role had expanded to cover the majority of building works, and the clerk of works was drawn from experienced tradesmen who had wide knowledge and understanding of the building process.
The clerk of works is the person who must ensure quality of both materials and workmanship and, to this end, must be absolutely impartial and independent in any decisions and judgements. They cannot normally, by virtue of the quality role, be employed by the contractor — only the client, and normally by the architect on behalf of the client. Their role is not to judge, but simply to report through exhaustive and detailed diary notes all occurrences that are relevant to the role. When originally formed, the Association was to allow those who were required to operate in isolation on site a central organisation to look after the interests of their chosen profession; be it through association with other professional bodies, educational means or simply through social intercourse amongst their own peers and contemporaries.
Essential to this — as the Association expanded — was the development of a central body that could lobby Parliament in relation to their profession, and the quality issues that it stands for. Although the means of construction, the training of individuals, and the way in which individuals are employed have changed dramatically over the past years, the principles for which the Association was originally formed remain sacrosanct.
However, the period of apprenticeship or training in the role of site engineer appears to be shortening, with firms forced to promote graduates earlier. Progression is normally to contracts management or project management. With the establishment of the single European market in , many professionals began expanding their practices into Europe, with varying degrees of success. Before undertaking most building projects, it is first necessary to obtain planning permission and Building Regulation approval.
The purpose of the planning system is to protect the environment as well as public amenities and facilities. This is an application for a development in principle without detail of construction, etc. Sometimes referred to as detailed planning permission when a fully detailed application is made. Permission when granted is valid for six years. Middlethought rated it it was amazing Aug 06, Joe rated it really liked it Feb 06, Lorraine MacDonald rated it really liked it Oct 15, Stephen Bishop rated it it was amazing Oct 20, Jack rated it really liked it Jul 23, Rami rated it it was amazing Apr 03, Stockfish rated it it was amazing Mar 17, Alex Canham rated it it was amazing Jun 05, Andy Macdonald rated it really liked it Jul 24, Tommy Allain rated it it was amazing Apr 05, Zain rated it did not like it Apr 10, Ben rated it really liked it Jan 10, Mohamed rated it really liked it Dec 16, Winwinzaw rated it really liked it May 13, Evelyn Ngie rated it it was amazing Apr 23, Badr Abdi added it Aug 02, Akalp added it Oct 18, Hanis marked it as to-read Nov 12, Waqas added it Jan 01, Akmal Fiaz added it Mar 06, Tzawoo added it Apr 21, Reen added it May 29, Kenny Telfer added it Sep 03, Wedi Abatie marked it as to-read Dec 01, Emeka Ezeali marked it as to-read Feb 05, Sohail Aslam marked it as to-read Feb 05, Xaw Lynn is currently reading it Feb 22, Maria added it Feb 23, Safraz marked it as to-read Apr 11, Spasinda marked it as to-read May 12,